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现在完成时

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问题一:英语现在完成时

一、从结构上区别

现在完成时:主语 + have / has + 过去分词 (肯定式)

主语 + have / has + not + 过去分词 (否定式)

Have / Has + 主语 + 过去分词 (疑问式)

过去完成时:主语 + had + 过去分词 (肯定式)

主语 +had + not + 过去分词 (否定式)

Had + 主语 + 过去分词 (疑问式)

(二)从时间状语区别

现在完成时: 常用的时间状语包括 “now, today, tonight, this week, this year, already, yet, just, recently…etc”。

过去完成时: 常用的时间状语包括 “by, at, before等构成的短语”。

注意:当表示一段时间,现在完成时和过去完成时都可以用for 或since引导的状语。

例如:Have you had your lunch yet? 你吃午饭了吗?

Yes, I have . I’ve just had it. 是的,我刚吃完。

I have had a clock now. 我现在有一个闹钟了。

Have you already posted the photos? 你把照片寄走了吗?

The meeting had begun when we got there. 我们到那儿时,会议已经开始了。

We had learned about 5000English words by the end of last term.

到上学期末我们已经学了5000个英语单词。

They had done the work at five o’clock. 在五点钟的时候他们已经完成了那项工作。

I’ve known Li Lei for three years. 我认识李蕾已经三年了。

I have worked here since ten years ago. 自从十年前我就在这工作。

We had not heard from him since we left here. 自从我们离开以来一直没有收到他的来信。

They had then been without sleep for twenty-four hours.这时他们已经有24个小时没有合眼了。

(三)使用时注意事项

使用现在完成时应该注意:

1.“ have/ has got ”形式上是一种完成时,但和have/ has 为同一意义,即 “有”。

例如:Have you got a pen-friend? 你有笔友吗?

Yes, I have. 是的,我有。

Has he got a lot of work to do? 他有许多工作要做吗?

No, he hasn’t. 不,他没有。

2. have/ has gone to 与 have/has been to 的区别

have/ has gone to 强调“去而未归”; have/ has been to 强调“去而归还”。 have/ has

been to常和once, twice, never, ever连用; have/ has gone to则不可。例如:

— Have Jack ever been to Beijing? 杰克去过北京吗?

— Yes, he’s been there several times. 是的,他去......余下全文>>

问题二:什么时候用现在完成时?

现在完成时(Present perfect)过去发生并且已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果,过去某一时间开始并一直持续到现在并且有可能还会持续的动作或状态。

(1)强调动作是从过去持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下去。

(2) 强调对现在的影响或结果,此用法容易和一般过去时混淆。两者的区别是:一般过去时有动作发生的时间点,即过去某一时间发生某一动作;现在完成时则没有,即不强调是哪个时间点发生的动作,而强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响和结果。

(3)在过去不确定的时间里发生的动作,但是结果对现在有影响。

1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语)

如yesterday(morning、afternoon),last(morning、afternoon)等,除非与for,since连用.

2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用

如already(肯定),yet(否定,疑问),just,before,recently,still,lately,never等:

He has already obtained a scholarship.

I haven't seen much of him recently (lately).

We have seen that film before.

Have they found the missing child yet?

3. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用,

如often,sometimes,ever,never,twice,on several occasion等:

Have you ever been to Beijing

I have never heard Bunny say anything against her.

I have used this pen only three times. It is still good.

George has met that gentleman on several occasions.

4. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,

如now,up to these few days/weeks/months/years,this morning/week/month/year,just,today,up to present,so far等:

Peter has written six papers so far.

Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom.

There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year.

The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have been enhanced in the past few years.

Up to the present everything has been successful.

5.现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作.  We have had four texts this semester.

6.现在完成时的"完成用法"

现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已......余下全文>>

问题三:怎么区分一般过去时与现在完成时

如果你只是要陈述你做了什么,陈述的东西和目前状况没有太大影响,就用一般过去时。比如说

i washed 储he plate.

我洗盘子了,topic基本到此打住,基本没有下文。还有一种最简单的过去时情况就是,如果别人用过去时问你,你自然要用过去时回答。

但是你要用现在完成时,效果就不一样了。

i have washed the plate.

我已经洗好盘子了。强调做过,完成了。还有意思是,既然我已经洗好盘子了,我就该干什么什么了,或者你就应该履行什么承诺之类的,你可以好好感觉一下,这个语感是和汉语通用的,我感觉。

过去完成时就是强调,在过去的那个点,我已经完成了。比如,

i had washed the plate before the tap broke down.

问题四:什么是现在完成时?

现在完成时(have/has done, have/has been done)

句型:

基本结构:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(pp)(V-ed) eg done

①肯定句:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(pp)(V-ed)+宾语

②否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词(pp)(V-ed)+宾语

③一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词(pp)(V-ed)+宾语

④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词(V-ed)+其他)

定义:

(1)强调动作是从过去持续到现在,并有可能继续持续下去。

(2) 强调对现在的影响或结果,此用法容易和一般过去时混淆。两者的区别是:一般过去时有动作发生的时间点,即过去某一时间发生某一动作;现在完成时则没有,即不强调是哪个时间点发生的动作,而强调过去的动作对现在造成的影响和结果。

(3)在过去不确定的时间里发生的动作,但是结果对现在有影响。

但过去分词一定要选择准确。

1现在完成时常用的时间状语有lately,recently,just,already,yet,up to now,till now,so far,to this day,in the past few years/months/weeks/days,over the past few years,during the last three months,for the last few centuries,through centuries,throughout history等。

2在时间状语从句中,谓语动词可以用现在完成时代替将来完成时。例如:

Mother won’t let her watch TV until she has finished her homework母亲要到她做完作业才让她看电视。

The dinner party will begin after all the guests arrive/have arrived所有的客人到了以后,聚餐就开始了。

3has/have been to与has/have gone to的区别。has/have been to表示“曾去过”,说明有某种经历;has/have gone to表示“已去某地(在途中或已经到达目的地)。例如:

They have been to Sweden many times他们去过瑞典许多次了。

Jack isn’t in He has gone to the supermarket杰克不在,他去超市了。

4现在完成时特别强调瞬间动词和持续性动词。瞬间动词表示短暂、不能持续一段时间的动作,如e,go,leave,start,begin,bee,receive,die,而持续性动词表示能持续一段时间的动作,如work,stay,live,learn等。下面列举一些常用的瞬间动词和对应的持续性动词:leave,be away;die,be dead;put on,wear;fall ill,be ill;borrow,keep;catch cold,have a cold;buy,have;join the army,be i......余下全文>>

问题五:现在完成时和过去完成时有什么区别,怎么区分才好?

现在完成时

构成:have /has +done/been done

用法:1动作发生在过去对现在的影响

eg:The possibility has been dismissed that he has liver failure.

2 动作开始于过去,一直持续到现在

eg:How long have you lived here?

3在时间条件壮语从句中,用现在完成时替代将来完成时

eg:When you have finished the magazine,please lend it to me.

常用时间状语:1表示到现在为止:already ,yet ,just ,ever, never ,before ,since ,so far, until now ,by now ,up to now.

2表示最近:recentl,lately in the past/last few years

3包含现在在内的时间状语:this morning/afternoon,all the year ,all day

过去完成时

构成:had + done/been done

1. 由时间状语来判定

与过去完成时连用的时间状语有:

( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:   I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.

( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。如:   We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.

( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。如:   They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday

2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。   过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在:

( 1 )宾语从句中   当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。如:   She said that she had seen the film before.

( 2 )状语从句中   在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。如:   After he had finished his homework, he went to bed.   注意: before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 b定fore 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。如:   After he closed the door, he left the classroom.

(3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"   We had hoped that y......余下全文>>

问题六:现在完成时是什么句式

首先,现在完成时只是一个时态,不能说是什么句式.其次,现在完成时是have+动词过去分词,表示过去发生的动作对现在的影响或者是过去的动作一直持续到现在.

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